Chicago Manual Of Style Endnote Citation

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Chicago Manual Of Style Endnote Citation

The second system is called author-date and is similar in layout to APA. Author-date is also paired with a bibliography. All cited sources will also be listed in the Bibliography section. Full citation details are then placed in the Bibliography section. Citations can be exported directly to your Google Drive, or to Word or other formats. If you already know which system to use, follow one of the links above to see sample citations for a variety of common sources. If you are unsure about which system to use, read on. In this system, sources are cited in numbered footnotes or endnotes. Each note corresponds to a raised (superscript) number in the text. Sources are also usually listed in a separate bibliography. The notes and bibliography system can accommodate a wide variety of sources, including unusual ones that don’t fit neatly into the author-date system. In this system, sources are briefly cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author’s last name and year of publication. Each in-text citation matches up with an entry in a reference list, where full bibliographic information is provided. Follow the links at the top of this page to see examples of some of the more common source types cited in both systems. Students who are unsure of which system to use will find more information here. The Ultimate Guide to Citing Anything in Chicago Style There are two types of referencing styles in Chicago: 1) Notes and Bibliography and 2) Author-Date. Our thorough MLA format and APA format guides are available for all of your writing and citing needs! The list includes the important publication details of the sources. The bibliography must also follow this format: These footnotes and endnotes acknowledge the different sources used in the work. That number correlates with a footnote or endnote. This will reduce the bulk of citation information in the paper. Writers would use ibid instead of writing out the source information again.

This was meant to save space since it’s fewer characters than citing the source again. This is because ibid requires readers to go back and search for the previous source cited, an inconvenience which outweighs the benefits of shortening the citation. Also, shortened citations are compact, so using ibid doesn’t always save line space. If there are more than three authors, list the first author’s name followed by “et al.” Focus on keeping key words from the title and omitting any beginning “a” or “the.” Examples: Martin’s Press, 2007), 24-27. This site is full of helpful pages, so if you’re tempted to head to Google to type in, “in-text citations Chicago,” take a peek at the official site first. Even though full bibliographic information can be found in the footnotes and endnotes, it is still acceptable, and often required by instructors, to create a bibliography. The bibliography is placed at the end of an assignment. Title of book. Publication Place: Publisher, Year. Martin’s Press, 2009), 84. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2009. Unthinking Eurocentrism: Multiculturalism and the Media. London: Routledge, 1994. First Name Last Name of Editor (Publication Place: Publisher, Year), page range. Publication Place: Publisher, Year. Head to our homepage and start building your Chicago format references with ease! Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference, 2014. The URL or database name should be the last part of the citation. Title of Book. Publication Place: Publisher, Year. URL, Name of Database. There are tons of Citation Machine grammar guides to help you write with ease.It’s also acceptable to omit page information from Chicago style citations if there aren’t clearly labeled page numbers. Title of book. Publication Place: Publisher, Year. Type of e-reader. Washington: AmazonCrossing, 2016. Kindle. Scroll up to find out more! Give it a whirl and watch the magic unfold! It’s acceptable to simply mention the source in the written portion of the paper.

For example, “The Marco Polo page on History’s website, last updated on March 6, 2019, describes his travels along the Silk Road while.” Include formal Chicago citation style references if you or your professor prefers to do so. Try it out! Formal bible references in bibliographies are not necessary. Two of our favorites. Adjectives starting with X and List of verbs. Of course, if the writer or professor prefers a full bibliographic reference, one can be created. Title of Larger Blog, if part of a larger one, Month Day Year of post. URL. Head to our homepage and try ours out! Title of Series. Season Number, episode number, “Title of Episode.” Aired Month Day, Year, on Station Name. URL. Title of Case Study. (Publication Place: Publisher, Year). Title of Case Study. Both guides are widely used by those in legal fields and have become the standard for referencing legal cases. Lesser known reference books can be cited in the bibliography. Title of Dictionary or Encyclopedia. Numbered ed. Location of Publisher: Publisher, Year. URL or Database(Identification Number). Home Alone. 1990; Los Angeles, CA: 20th Century Fox. DVD. City, State Abbrev, Year. Audit of the Federal Bureau of Prisons Annual Financial Statements Fiscal Year 2014. Washington, DC, 2014. Use one of those formats to cite your interview. They are rarely listed in the Chicago style bibliography. In addition, an e-mail address belonging to an individual should be omitted, unless given permission by its owner. Title of Album. Recorded Year. Producer. Remember, this style uses footnotes and endnotes. Head to the top of this page to learn more! Site video, Length. URL. Published on September 11, 2019. YouTube video, 01:35.. Title of Image. Date. Format. Location, State, URL. If it’s a recorded performance, follow the Chicago style format for musical recordings. First Name Last name, chor. Name of Theatre, City, State Abbrev, Date of Live Performance. Garth Fagan, chor.

Minskoff Theatre, New York, NY, August 8, 2019. If found online, include the url. It’s the perfect go-to resource when you’re in need of another set of eyes to scan your paper! Michele Kirschenbaum has been an awesome school librarian since 2006 and is an expert in citing sources. Wendy Ikemoto has a master’s degree in library and information science and has been working for Citation Machine since 2012. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. These resources follow the seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style (17t h e dition), which was issued in 2017. The other documentation style, the Author-Date System, is nearly identical in content but slightly different in form and is preferred by those working in the social sciences. For examples of how these citation styles work in research papers, consult our sample papers: This offers writers a flexible option for citation and provides an outlet for commenting on those sources, if needed. Proper use of the Notes and Bibliography system builds a writer’s credibility by demonstrating their accountability to source material. In addition, it can protect writers from accusations of plagiarism, which is the intentional or accidental uncredited use of source material created by others. Footnotes are added at the end of the page on which the source is referenced, while endnotes are compiled at the end of each chapter or at the end of the entire document. However, if a bibliography is not included with a work, the first note for each source should include all relevant information about the source: author’s full name, source title, and facts of publication.

If you cite the same source again, or if a bibliography is included in the work, the note only needs to include the surname of the author, a shortened form of the title (if more than four words), and the page number(s). However, in a work that does not include a bibliography, it is recommended that the full citation be repeated when it is first used in a new chapter. In a work with a bibliography, the first reference should use a shortened citation which includes the author’s name, the source title, and the page number(s), and consecutive references to the same work may omit the source title and simply include the author and page number. Although discouraged by CMOS, if you cite the same source and page number(s) from a single source two or more times consecutively, it is also possible to utilize the word “Ibid.,” ( from the Latin ibidem, which means “in the same place,”) as the corresponding note. If you use the same source but a draw from different new page, the corresponding note should use “Ibid.” followed by a comma and the new page number(s). This page, most often titled Bibliography, is usually placed at the end of the work preceding the index. It should include all sources cited within the work and may sometimes include other relevant sources that were not cited but provide further reading. If no author or editor is listed, the title or, as a last resort, a descriptive phrase may be used. Titles of articles, chapters, poems, etc.For more information about Selected Bibliographies, Annotated Bibliographies, and Bibliographic Essays, please consult Chapter 14.61 of The Chicago Manual of Style (17th edition). This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. Your footnotes and bibliographies should be single-spaced, but should have a blank line between entries.

A page header in Chicago should be found on the top of every page justified to the right. The page header should contain the author's last name followed by the page number. The first page to be numbered should be page 2. Please use our title page creator to format your title page. Label this page bibliography at the top middle of the page. Do not underline, bold, enlarge or use quotes for the word Bibliography. The bibliography should include all sources cited within the work and may sometimes include other relevant sources that were not cited but provide further reading. The first note is a full note and the second note is a shortened form that can be used for subsequent citations of a source already cited. Endnotes appear at the end of the paper rather than at the foot of the page. But if your notes are so long or numerous that they take up too much space on the page, endnotes are usually the better choice. Endnotes are also better at accommodating tables, quoted poetry, or anything else that may require extra space. For more details, see chapters 16 and 17 in the Turabian Manual. See also section A.2.3.4 in the Turabian appendix on paper format and submission. They are fully compatible with The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.). You can print them and download them. Share this: Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window) Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window) More Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Tags: Chicago Manual of Style, featured, research papers, students, Turabian, writing Must ride! Quarantine... sigh... coffee! Perfection really is a work of art...... perfection takes its sweet time. Now where was I?... Train With Editors Canada Categories. Our primary focus will be on the rules for footnotes, but we will provide some guidance for endnotes as well. Note as well that you should never insert multiple footnotes right after each other.

Here’s what you’ll need to do: Do note that in unpublished manuscripts you are allowed to use superscript in the notes (see section 14.24), so if you’re writing an essay for your teacher you don’t have to worry about the last style rule. In such cases you can provide just the author’s last name, the title (shortened if longer than four words), and a page reference: For the author, omit first names and remove references to contributor roles (e.g., ed. or trans. ). See Kevin Isner, “Going the Distance: The Problem of the Fifth Set,” Wimbledon Advantage 55, no. 2 (2018): 22. The number that precedes them is the page reference. In that case you may want to substitute a chapter title, a paragraph number, or some other description of where the claim or quote may be located. Dante’s Divine Comedy, for instance is usually cited by canto and line number: On the other hand, the downside to endnotes is that many readers don’t like flipping back and forth to compare the notes to the text. Most students can rely on using footnotes instead. However, the Chicago Manual of Style recommends that for the sake of clarity writers are more cautious about using shortened citations (see above). In such cases you can restart the numbering, beginning with 1. Please enter your credentials below! Register one. It will help you understand footnotes vs endnotes, teach you how to create them, and show real examples you can learn from. The Chicago footnotes format helps writers to reference their sources in a way that does not interrupt the flow of the writing. Both are perfectly acceptable; it’s mainly a question of personal preference. Just pick one and use it consistently. Footnotes or endnotes acknowledge which parts of their paper reference particular sources. Generally, you want to provide the author’s name, publication title, publication information, date of publication, and page number(s) if it is the first time the source is being used.

Any additional usage, simply use the author’s last name, publication title, and date of publication. You should begin with 1 and continue numerically throughout the paper. Do not start the order over on each page. The reader can consult your bibliography to find the full reference. The next time you use the same work, you can just use the shortened citation form. Do not start the order over on each page. This is common for online material and older sources. If this happens, just use the information you have to form the citation. Check out the Chicago footnotes generator that comes with a subscription to EasyBib Plus. If there is more than one of any given contributor, include their full names in the order they appear on the source. Claire Nicolas White (New York: Pantheon Books, 1985), 14. Simply omit the unknown information and continue with the footnote as usual. This can include specific pages, sections, or volumes. If page numbers cannot be referenced, simply exclude them. If this is absolutely necessary, you must cite both the original work and the secondary one in Chicago footnotes. You use a colon between chapter and verse. Also, include the version you are referencing. The version must be spelled out for a general audience, but it may be abbreviated for specialists. Lil Nas X and Sam Elliott,” YouTube video, 01:30, posted February 2, 2020,. Updated March 11, 2020. Janice has a doctorate in literature and a master’s degree in library science. She spends a lot of time with rare books and citations. Click on a star to rate it. Submit Rating We are sorry that this post was not useful for you. Let us improve this post. Tell us how we can improve this post. Submit Feedback. APA Citation Generator Citing sources with Chicago style footnotes Published on September 18, 2019 by Jack Caulfield. Revised on July 8, 2020. The notes and bibliography style is one of two citation options provided by the Chicago Manual of Style.

Each time a source is quoted or paraphrased, a superscript number is placed in the text, which corresponds to a footnote or endnote containing details of the source. Footnotes appear at the bottom of the page, while endnotes appear on a separate page at the end of the text. This is an example of a Chicago style footnote citation. 1 1. Woolf, “Modern Fiction,” 11. Table of contents Full notes and short notes Placement of footnotes Content of Chicago footnotes Footnote examples for different source types Footnotes vs endnotes Frequently asked questions about Chicago style footnotes Full notes and short notes There are two types of footnote in Chicago style: full notes and short notes. Full notes contain the full publication details of the source. They are only used in texts without a bibliography. If you do not include a bibliography, the first citation for each source should be a full note. Full note example 1. Virginia Woolf, “Modern Fiction,” in Selected Essays, ed. David Bradshaw (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), 11. Short notes contain only the author’s last name, the title (shortened if longer than four words), and the page number (if relevant). They are used for all subsequent citations of the same source. If you include a bibliography, short notes are used for every citation. Short note example 2. Woolf, “Modern Fiction”, 11. Chicago recommends including a bibliography in most cases, which means you’ll usually only need short notes. However, a bibliography is not mandatory in Chicago style. For example, a short essays with few sources may not include one. If you aren’t including a bibliography, remember to use a full note for the first reference to each source. Placement of footnotes Footnotes should be used whenever a source is quoted or paraphrased in the text. They appear at the bottom of the relevant page, corresponding to reference numbers in the text. You can easily insert footnotes in Microsoft Word.

The reference number appears in superscript at the end of the clause or sentence it refers to. Your first citation is marked with a 1, your second with a 2, and so on. The numbering does not restart with a new page or section (although in a book-length text it should restart with each new chapter). The citation always includes the author’s name and the title of the text, and it always ends with a period. Full notes also include all the relevant publication information (which varies by source type). If you quote a source or refer to a specific passage, include a page number or range. However, if the source doesn’t have page numbers, or if you’re referring to the text as a whole, you can omit the page number. In short notes, titles of more than four words are shortened. Shorten them in a way that retains the keyword(s) so that the text is still easily recognizable for the reader: 1. Mary Shelley, Frankenstein; or, the Modern Prometheus, ed. M.K. Joseph (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998), 91. 2. Shelley, Frankenstein, 91. Combining multiple citations Do not place multiple footnotes at the same point in your text (e.g. 1, 2, 3 ). If you need to cite multiple sources in one sentence, you can combine the citations into one footnote, separated by semicolons: 1. Hulme, “Romanticism and Classicism”; Eliot, “The Waste Land”; Woolf, “Modern Fiction,” 11. Sources with multiple authors Footnotes for sources with two or three authors should include all the authors’ names. When there are four or more authors, add “ et al. ” (Latin for “and others”) after the first author’s name. Tsing et al. Missing information You sometimes won’t have all the information required for your citation. You might be missing page numbers, the author’s name, or the publication date. If one of your sources (e.g. a website ) has no page numbers, but you still think it’s important to cite a specific part of the text, other locators like headings, chapters or paragraphs can be used.

Omit the website name from its usual place if you’ve already listed it in place of the author. However, the information included in full notes varies according to the source you’re citing. Below are examples for several common source types, showing how the footnote should look in Chicago format. Chicago book citation Italicize the book title. If the book states an edition (other than the first), include this and abbreviate it (e.g. 2nd ed., rev. ed.). Add the URL if you consulted the book online instead of in a physical copy. Format Example This is the format of a full note, 1 and this is the format of a short note. 2 1. Author first name last name, Book Title, edition. (Place of publication: Publisher, year), page number(s), URL. 2. Author last name, Shortened Book Title, page number(s). In this case, you’ll want to cite the relevant chapter rather than the whole book. The chapter title should be enclosed in quotation marks, while the book title should be italicized. The short note only contains the chapter title. The author is the one who wrote the specific chapter you’re citing. The editor of the whole book is listed toward the end of the footnote (with the abbreviation “ed.”), and left out of the short note. Format Example This is the format of a full note, 1 and this is the format of a short note. 2 1. Author first name last name, “Chapter Title,” in Book Title, ed. Editor first name last name (Place of publication: Publisher, year), page number(s). 2. Author last name, “Shortened Chapter Title,” page number(s). This is an example of a full note, 3 and this is an example of a short note. 4 3. Bob Stewart, “Wag of the Tail: Reflecting on Pet Ownership,” in Enriching Our Lives with Animals, ed. John Jaimeson (Toronto: Petlove Press, 2007), 87. 4. Stewart, “Wag of the Tail,” 88. Chicago journal article citation The article title should be enclosed in quotation marks, while the journal name should be italicized.

Volume and issue numbers identify which edition of the journal the source appears in. A DOI is a digital object identifier. This is generally more reliable than the URL when linking to online journal content. Format Example This is the format of a full note, 1 and this is the format of a short note. 2 1. Author first name last name, “Article Title,” Journal Name Volume, Issue number (Year): page number(s), DOI or URL. 2. Author last name, “Shortened Article Title,” page number(s). Chicago website citation The page title should be enclosed in quotation marks. Italicization is not used for website names. If the publication date is unknown, you can instead list the date when you accessed the page at the end of the citation (e.g. accessed on September 10, 2019). Endnotes are less commonly used than footnotes, but they’re a perfectly valid option. Footnotes appear at the bottom of the page they refer to. Endnotes appear in their own section at the end of the text, before the bibliography. Endnote citations look exactly the same as those in footnotes. Unless you’ve been told which one to use, choose whichever you prefer. Just use one or the other consistently. Frequently asked questions about Chicago style footnotes What is the difference between footnotes and endnotes. Footnotes appear at the bottom of the relevant page. Endnotes appear in a list at the end of the text, just before the bibliography. Chicago note citations follow the exact same format whether they appear in footnotes or endnotes. Should I use short notes or full notes. If your text includes a Chicago style bibliography, you only ever need to use short notes. Each short note must correspond to a bibliography entry. If you do not include a bibliography, your first citation of each source should be a full note, while all subsequent citations should be short notes. Do I have to include a bibliography or reference list. In Chicago author-date style, your text must include a reference list.

It appears at the end of your paper and gives full details of every source you cited. In notes and bibliography style, you use Chicago style footnotes to cite sources; a bibliography is optional but recommended. If you don’t include one, be sure to use a full note for the first citation of each source. When should I include page numbers in Chicago style citations. Page numbers should be included in your Chicago in-text citations when: You’re quoting from the text. You’re paraphrasing a particular passage. You’re referring to information from a specific section. When you’re referring to the overall argument or general content of a source, it’s unnecessary to include page numbers. How do I cite a source with multiple authors in Chicago style. In a Chicago style footnote, list up to three authors. If there are more than three, name only the first author, followed by “ et al. “ In the bibliography, list up to ten authors. Burns et al. Burns, Anna, Robert Smith, Judith Green, and Maggie White. The same rules apply in Chicago author-date style. Is this article helpful? 73 8 4 You have already voted. Thanks:-) Your vote is saved:-) Processing your vote. Jack Caulfield Jack is a Brit based in Amsterdam, with an MA in comparative literature. He writes and edits for Scribbr, and reads a lot of books in his spare time. Other students also liked How to create a Chicago style bibliography In Chicago style, your bibliography lists full information on all your sources, alphabetized by author last name. Read how to insert and format footnotes in Word. 428 4 comments Fred Bleakley August 20, 2020 at 12:48 AM This was very helpful for footnotes. Hope that helps! Reply Nabil June 22, 2020 at 9:10 PM HI, With the footnotes, is it ok to add additional information regarding a word or name by explaining further with body text, other than just using a footnote as a citation from an author.Reply Comment or ask a question. Please verify you are human.

Please click the checkbox on the left to verify that you are a not a bot. Scribbr Plagiarism Checker. Chicago style requires the use of one of two different documentation systems: Resources,” Global Governance 13, no. 3 (2007): 427-44, Resources.” Global Governance 13, no. 3 (2007): 427-44. Title of Book, Publication Location: Publisher, Year. New Brunswick: Rutgers Press, 2013. New York: New York University Press, 2012. EBSCOhost. Please use one of these links to upgrade to a modern web browser: Firefox, Google Chrome, Internet Explorer. Join our Teams! See our Chicago Style author-date resource if your discipline uses parenthetical citations. It is most often used in the humanities because the thorough information in the citation is useful to other researchers. Check with your discipline to see if footnotes or endnotes are preferred. Footnotes are placed in the footer section of each page, while endnotes are placed in a separate section directly following your text but preceding your bibliography. Both are single spaced. Because footnotes and endnotes are meant to reflect the location of your evidence, they can contain the citation information for more than one source. See note 3 in the sample above. Sources are listed alphabetically in a section titled “Bibliography” that is placed at the very end of your assignment. See the sample bibliography at the end of this handout. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. Old Mistresses: Women, Art and Ideology. New York: I.B. Tauris, 2013. Kristina Huneault and Janice Anderson (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2012), 157. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2012. Title of Book. City: Publisher, Publication year. URL. An Environmental History of Canada. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2012. Instead, attribution may be given to information from a daily newspaper in footnotes or endnotes. Please refer to The Chicago Manual of Style 17 th edition for more information. Last modified date. URL. Title of Text.

Indication of medium, Running time. Publication date. URL. Repository, City. In these cases, first provide the full citation information for the original source. Following “quoted in,” provide the full citation information for the secondary source using the appropriate source formatting (as detailed above). Title of Original Source. Publication City of Original Source: Publisher of Original Source, Publication year of Original Source.Quoted in Payne, Carol J. The Official Picture: The National Film Board of Canada’s Still Photography Division and the Image of Canada, 1941-1971, 2013. Citation Guidelines Footnotes and endnotes require you to include detailed information about each source as you cite it. With few exceptions, you should use either footnotes or endnotes in your paper, not both. Many professors prefer that you use footnotes rather than endnotes. Check with your professor to see what he or she prefers. For example, the following would be considered common knowledge in history: For example: Block quotations begin on a new line and are indented using the indent button. Do not put quotation marks around block quotations. For example: Though eighteenth-century wives were expected to contribute to the household coffers and the male breadwinner ideology did not take hold until the following century at the earliest, significant aspects of early modern culture presumed wifely dependence. Husbands were expected to “maintain” their wives, and parish overseers prosecuted men who did not uphold their duty of giving wives sufficient food, clothing, and shelter for their survival. 2 We offer our gratitude to First Peoples for their care for, and teachings about, our earth and our relations. Book, two to three authors: 2. Robert Lynd and Helen Lynd, Middletown: A Study in American Culture (New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1929), 67-70. Book, four or more authors: 3. Jacquelyn Dowd Hall et al.